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Friday April 10, 2020

Case of the Week

Exit Strategies for Real Estate Investors, Part 11

Case:

Karl Hendricks was a man with the golden touch. Throughout his life, it seemed every investment idea that he touched turned to gold. By far, Karl was most successful with real estate investments. It was definitely his passion.

Amazingly, Karl continued to buy and sell real estate at the age of 85. For instance, about three months ago, Karl discovered a great investment property. It was a "fixer-upper" commercial building in a great area. While other nearby buildings sold for over $2 million, the seller needed to sell quickly and was asking just $1 million.

The condition of the building turned many buyers away. It was being sold "as-is," but Karl was not deterred. He could see great potential with the building and knew it would not take much to get it to market condition. Therefore, Karl swooped in, bought the building for $1 million and instantly hired contractors to refurbish the place.

After three months of hard work refurbishing the building, the place looked like new! In the end, Karl invested $250,000 in the building, bringing his total investment in the property to $1.25 million. One month after the completion of the work, Karl was contacted informally by a company that expressed an interest in the building — a $2 million interest! This was no surprise to Karl. He knew the building was another great buy.

After Karl learned about the benefits of a FLIP CRUT, he eagerly wanted to move forward. (See Parts 1 and 2 for a full discussion of this decision.) It looked like the perfect solution. However, Karl still did have some important questions.

Question:

First, Karl wanted to know what steps would be needed in order to validate and solidify his charitable income tax deduction? He knew the IRS would not just "take his word for it."

Solution:

This is a very important question and, accordingly, it is crucial that Karl follow the valuation and substantiation rules closely. Indeed, taxpayers are consistently denied their charitable income tax deductions when the required record keeping and documentation is not available when requested.

The appraisal. When a donor makes a gift of property (other than cash or public securities) over $5,000, a qualified appraisal is required. However, there is an exception for non-publicly traded stocks if the value does not exceed $10,000. The appraisal must be performed no earlier than 60 days prior to the gift and no later than the due date of the donor's income tax return (including extensions). This appraisal timeline provides donors with flexibility regarding the completion of the appraisal. However, the appraisal must value the property as of the "date of the gift," irrespective of the actual date the appraisal was completed.

As one can imagine, the appraisal must include quite a bit of information. For instance, it usually will include:

1) A detailed description of the property
2) The physical condition of the property
3) The date, or expected date, of the gift
4) Any agreement or understanding regarding the use of the property
5) The name, address and tax ID number of the appraiser
6) The appraiser's qualifications
7) A statement that the appraisal was done for income tax purposes
8) The fair market value of the property
9) The method and basis for property valuation
10) The date of appraisal

The appraiser. Because of the tax and legal implications inherent with charitable income tax deductions, it is essential that a qualified appraiser perform the appraisal. There are several important factors for determining if an appraiser is qualified.

The appraiser will be qualified if he or she has an appraisal designation from a recognized organization, has otherwise met comparable education experience requirements, regularly performs and is paid for appraisals, has verifiable education and experience with the type of property appraised, has not been prohibited from practicing before the IRS and has not been excluded by Treasury regulations from serving as an appraiser. Sec. 170(f)(11)(E)(ii).

For real property gifts, the appraiser meets the required standards if he or she is licensed or certified for the type of real property by the appropriate state agency. Some state agencies have a separate certification for certain types of real estate, such as residential and commercial real estate. In these states, the appraiser must have the appropriate designation for the type of real estate gifted to charity. Notice 2006-96; 2006-46 IRB 1.

For gifts that are not real property, the appraiser must fulfill three requirements. He or she must have completed "college or professional-level coursework," must have two years of experience in buying, selling or valuing the type of gifted property and must thoroughly describe, in the appraisal, his or her education and qualifying experience.

Generally, appraisals will qualify if they are consistent with the Uniform Standards of Professional Appraisal Practice set forth by the Appraisal Standards Board of the Appraisal Foundation. Notice 2006-96, Section 3.03.

Appraisals must also include a statement that the appraiser recognizes that a substantial or gross valuation misstatement that he or she knew or reasonably should have known would be used on a tax document could lead to a civil penalty. Sec. 6695A(b). The appraiser penalties for incorrect appraisals are the greater of $1,000 or 10% of the understatement from a substantial or gross valuation misstatement, with a cap of 125% of the appraiser's gross income from the appraisal. Sec. 6695A(b). The IRS may also discipline appraisers after notice and a hearing. Disciplinary action may include suspending or barring an appraiser from preparing or presenting appraisals to the IRS.

In addition to the factors listed above, there are rules that prevent certain individuals from being the appraiser. For instance, the donor, an employee of the donor, persons related to the donor and the charitable donee may not perform the appraisal.

Based upon this information, Karl wisely hires a prominent and respectable independent real estate firm to value his building. Not surprisingly, the firm's extensive experience in providing appraisals for income tax purposes gives Karl a great deal of comfort and peace of mind.

Editor's Note: In Part 12 of this case study series, we will address the need for Form 8283 and the rules regarding its filing.

Published June 14, 2019
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Previous Articles

Exit Strategies for Real Estate Investors, Part 10

Exit Strategies for Real Estate Investors, Part 9

Exit Strategies for Real Estate Investors, Part 8

Exit Strategies for Real Estate Investors, Part 7

Exit Strategies for Real Estate Investors, Part 6

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Maria Poimenidou, 2020
Theodore Diamandopoulos
Memorial Scholarship

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Jelani Jones, 2021
Marie Dohr Memorial Scholarship

"Being at Lawrence has and continues to be a joy for me. I feel that I have grown so much as a musician, a teacher, and a friend through the awesome community of professors and friends I have met here. I feel that I am blessed to have such an awesome violin professor, and all the faculty members in the education department are so amazing. I have come to see Lawrence and the state of Wisconsin as my home, and I wouldn't change a thing."

Maggie Wright, 2021
Margaret S. and W. Paul Gilbert Memorial Scholarship

The scholarships I receive at Lawrence allow me to experience anything that I want to. I can pursue my love of Biology and Chemistry in classes that are engaging, with professors who care individually about their students. These scholarships also give me the freedom to participate in numerous extracurriculars that Lawrence offers as well, like the Fencing Team and the American Medical Students Association. All of the opportunities Lawrence offers me remind me how grateful I am to have received the Margaret S. and W. Paul Gilbert Memorial Scholarship."

Molly Chadwick Reese, 2020
Anne Prioleau Jones Tuition Scholarship in French

"Attending Lawrence is a privilege few are granted. Every moment spent at Lawrence solidifies a lifelong membership in a special group of peers, known as Lawrentians. The esprit de corps that Lawrence fosters makes the connection between students and mentors new and challenging, with both parties in a constant state of curiosity, respect, and encouragement. My experience as a language learner at Lawrence has not only helped my comprehension of the French language, but has enhanced my ability to communicate and connect with people in ways I never expected before attending Lawrence. As a French major and a student following a pre-medicine track, I have been afforded the privilege of diving into the sumptuous depths of the humanities, while satiating my hunger for scientific knowledge in concert. From this, I am able to fully appreciate the wonders of a liberal arts education. If not for the Anne Prioleau Jones Scholarship in French, I would be unable to join my peers in this quest for knowledge. I am very grateful for the donors' generosity."

Milwaukee-Downer Scholarships and Professorships

Some of the many recipients of Milwaukee-Downer scholarships gather for a photo with Carolyn King Stephens M-D'62 and Marlene Crupi-Widen M-D'55 in January 2014 at the annual scholarship luncheon.

Rosamund Victoria Bille Adler Scholarship
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Helen Daniels Bader Scholarship
James G. and Ethel M. Barber Scholarship
Catharine Beecher Endowed Fund for Downer Women
Bessie A. Bell Scholarship
Berk Scholarship
Frederick C. Best Scholarship
Beta Study Club Scholarship
Lynde Bradley Scholarship
Lucia R. Briggs-Alumnae Scholarship
Edith Lange Brooks Scholarship
Anne Barman Caldwell Scholarship
Alice Miller Chester Scholarship
City of Milwaukee Student Funds Scholarship
Milwaukee-Downer Class of 1940 Fund
Milwaukee-Downer Class of 1942 Fund
College Endowment Association Scholarship
Janet Cope Crawford Scholarship
Jessie Mabbott Daniels Scholarship
F. T. Day Scholarship
Rufus Dodge Scholarship
Julia P. Ely and Hannah R. Vedder Memorial Scholarship
General Endowed Scholarship - M-D College
Dr. Alfred W. and Mrs. Ada F. Gray Scholarship
Berenice E. Hess Scholarship Endowment
Lucille Ray Hibbard Scholarship
Belle Austin Jacobs Scholarship
Helen McDermott Jurack and Ronald J. Mason Scholarship
Marjorie S. Logan Scholarship
Nellie Maxwell Scholarship
S. Annabelle & Paul McGuire Scholarship
Memorial Scholarship Fund - Milwaukee-Downer
Milwaukee-Downer Class of 1953 Scholarship
Milwaukee-Downer Class of 1955 Scholarship
Milwaukee-Downer Class of 1956 Scholarship
Milwaukee-Downer Class of 1957 Scholarship
Milwaukee-Downer Class of 1958 and 1959 50th Reunion Scholarship
Milwaukee-Downer Club Scholarship
Milwaukee-Downer/Lawrence College Consolidation 50th Anniversary Scholarship
Francis Evelyn Kelley Morgan Memorial Scholarship
O'Neill-Anderson Family Scholarship Endowment
Elizabeth A. Olson Scholarship
Gilbert Haven Peirce, Sr. and Emma Elizabeth Manor Peirce Milwaukee-Downer Scholarship
Aleida J. Pieters Scholarship
Matilda Siefert Puelicher Scholarship
Elizabeth Ann Richardson Scholarship
William M. Ross Memorial Scholarship
Elizabeth Rossberg Scholarship
Charles Frederic Sammond Scholarship
Mildred L. Schroeder Scholarship
Sivyer Educational Fund for Women
Marion Merrill Smith Scholarship
Dr. Elizabeth A. Steffen Scholarship
W. Mead and Elizabeth McKone Stillman Scholarship
Strzelczyk Family Scholarship
Clare Scherf Sweetman Scholarship
Raymond H. and Jane K. Taylor Scholarship
Jerline E. Walfoort Memorial Scholarship
Barbara E. Wehr Fund
Harmony Weissbach Scholarship
Martha and Frances Wheelock Scholarship
James G. and Ethel M. Barber Professorship of Theatre and Drama
T. A. Chapman Professorship in Music
Alice G. Chapman Professorship in Physics
Alice G. Chapman Librarianship
Milwaukee-Downer College and College Endowment Association Professorship

Angela Small Fry Intia, 2019
Maurine Campbell Scholarship

"Thanks to the Maurine Campbell scholarship, I have been able to attend the amazing school that is Lawrence University. With the help from this scholarship, I have been able to pursue my dream career in chemistry working with the outstanding and extremely helpful faculty here. Even outside of chemistry I take the time for exploration into my interests and want to give back through my work as a resident life advisor, stock room assistant, and student supervisor at Bon Appetit. Everything I have learned here, academically or not has forever molded the person I am today."

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